The Philippines 3rd Sabbatical Cycle Disease Outbreaks (2010 to Present)

Dengue cases hit record high; more deaths feared

January 20, 2010 Philippines: Dengue cases 2010 – 737 fatalities

February 20, 2010 Philippines: 2010 Measles cases

March 25, 2010 Philippines: 2010 Diarrhea outbreaks

June 19, 2010 First-known Reported Kawasaki Disease Outbreak in the Philippines, 2010

July 23, 2010 DOH declares malaria epidemic in Camarines Norte

August 13, 2010 Outbreak of rabies hit 9 towns, cities in Negros Occidental

February 14, 2011 Philippines: Cholera outbreak in Palawan, 30+ fatalities

January 4, 2012 Leptospirosis Outbreak Follows Flooding in Philippines

January 10, 2013 Philippines: 2013 Chikungunya outbreaks

January 4, 2014 DOH declares measles outbreaks in 5 Metro Manila cities

Outbreak of Henipavirus Infection, Philippines, 2014

Philippines measles outbreak 2014: 58,010 cases, 110 deaths

April 13, 2015 Philippines measles cases top 500 for 2015

July 8, 2015 Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) – The Philippines

August 8, 2015 Philippines Reportable Diseases update for 2015: Diphtheria doubles, measles way down

The Philippines 3rd Sabbatical Cycle Disease Outbreaks (2010 to Present)

3rd Sabbatical Cycle Disease Outbreaks in the Philippines (1961-1967)

1961 A pandemic of El-Tor-type cholera began in south-east Asia during 1961. Many members of the medical profession, as well as government officials and the public, were confused by the relationship between the disease caused by the El Tor organism and classic Asiatic cholera. The authors observed large numbers of cholera patients admitted to San Lazaro Hospital, Manila, early in the Philippine epidemic, and in the present communication they draw attention to certain clinical and epidemiological features of so-called El Tor cholera.

1962 Rice Tungro disease was recorded as early as the 1940s in major rice growing regions and reduced grain yield by 30% amounting to 1.4 million t annually (Serrano, 1957). Major outbreaks have occurred from time to time during 1962 (3rd cycle 2nd year)-1998. In 1970 (4th cycle 3rd year), outbreaks damaged rice on 100,000 ha in central Luzon and at Cotabato (Ou et al., 1974). Yield losses due to tungro in 1971 (4th cycle 4th year) were estimated as 456,000 tonnes of rough rice (Ling et al., 1983).

1963-1964 Dengue has assumed new characteristics in the Philippines producing frequently a deadly hemorrhagic disease rather than its usual symptoms. Several large epidemics have occurred, with thousands of cases and a high death rate.

1964 Acute respiratory infections have been found to be a common cause of morbidity in young adults in the tropical setting of the Philippines, with incidence rates equalling those of colder northern countries. Influenza outbreaks have occurred as part of a worldwide pattern and parainfluenza infections are common.

74 cases of Amoebic colitis liver abscess in 1964

83 cases of Amoebic colitis liver abscess treated during 1967 (3rd cycle 7th year) to 1975 (5th cycle 1st year)

3rd Sabbatical Cycle Disease Outbreaks in the Philippines (1961-1967)

Historical Events in the Philippines During the Sabbatical and Jubilee Years

1589

The Spanish governor, made a viceroy in 1589, ruled with the counsel of the powerful royal audiencia.

1764

Spanish rule on the Philippines was briefly interrupted in 1762, when British troops invaded and occupied the islands as a result of Spain’s entry into the Seven Years’ War. The Treaty of Paris in 1763 brought back Spanish rule and the British left in 1764. The brief British occupation weakened Spain’s grip on power and sparked rebellions and demands for independence.

1778 and 1793

The Philippines fought an expensive war against Muslim raiders between 1778 and 1793.

1828

The Philippines prohibited foreigners from retail business in 1828.

1834

Manila was opened to world trade in 1834.

1848

Gunboats bought from the British were used to defeat the Muslims on Mindanao in 1848.

1869

In 1869 a new Spanish constitution brought to the Philippines universal suffrage and a free press.

The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 cut travel time to Spain. This prompted the rise of the ilustrados, an enlightened Filipino upper class, since many young Filipinos were able to study in Europe.

1891

After the Dominicans expelled his family from Calamba, Rizal’s 1891 novel El Filibusterismo was a stronger call for revolution but also a warning against violence.

1897-1899 (Sabbatical and Jubilee Years)

The Philippine Revolution began in 1896. Rizal was concerned in the outbreak of the revolution and executed for treason in 1896. The Katipunan split into two groups, Magdiwang led by Andrés Bonifacio and Magdalo led by Emilio Aguinaldo. Conflict between the two revolutionary leaders ended in the execution or assassination of Bonifacio by Aguinaldo’s soldiers. Aguinaldo agreed to a treaty with the Pact of Biak na Bato and Aguinaldo and his fellow revolutionaries were exiled to Hong Kong.

It was the opposition to the power of the clergy that in large measure brought about the rising attitude for independence. Spanish injustices, prejudice, and economic oppressions fed the movement, which was greatly inspired by the brilliant writings of José Rizal. In 1896 revolution began in the province of Cavite, and after the execution of Rizal that December, it spread throughout the major islands. The Filipino leader, Emilio Aguinaldo, achieved considerable success before a peace was patched up with Spain. The peace was short-lived, however, for neither side honored its agreements, and a new revolution was made when the Spanish-American War broke out in 1898.

The Spanish-American war started in 1898 after the USS Maine, sent to Cuba in connection with an attempt to arrange a peaceful resolution between Cuban independence ambitions and Spanish colonialism, was sunk in Havana harbor. After the U.S. naval victory led by Commodore George Dewey defeated the Spanish squadron at Manila Bay on May 1, 1898, the U.S. invited Aguinaldo to return to the Philippines, which he did on May 19, 1898, in the hope he would rally Filipinos against the Spanish colonial government. By the time U.S. land forces had arrived, the Filipinos had taken control of the entire island of Luzon, except for the walled city of Intramuros Manila, which they were besieging. On June 12, 1898, Aguinaldo declared the independence of the Philippines in Kawit, Cavite, establishing the First Philippine Republic under Asia’s first democratic constitution. Their dreams of independence were crushed when the Philippines were transferred from Spain to the United States in the Treaty of Paris (1898), which closed the Spanish-American War.

1904

200,000 Filipinos died in 1902-04 in a cholera epidemic.

1946-1948 (Sabbatical and Jubilee Years)

Following occupation by the Japanese in World War II, the Philippines gained independence in 1946.

With help from the rich and the Americans, the Liberal party won the election on April 23, 1946 and excluded the six elected from the DA. The US withheld aid until July 4 when the Philippines accepted a trade agreement that favored the Americans and was declared independent. In 1947 McNutt secured 99-year leases on 22 military installations for the US. In March 1948 President Roxas outlawed the Hukbalahaps, but he died of a heart attack on April 15.

1981

In January 1981, after being reelected to another six years as president through fraudulent balloting, Marcos appeared to make new efforts to move the country toward economic stability.  He ended martial law, which had hampered domestic commerce and foreign investment in the country since 1972, and continued with his development plans, including the construction of new plants for steel, phosphate, cement, diesel engines, and petrochemicals.  He also sought to reduce dependence on foreign oil by building nuclear and geothermal electric power plants.

1997 (Jubilee Year)

Asian Financial Crisis

2009

The Great Recession

Historical Events in the Philippines During the Sabbatical and Jubilee Years